NEUROIMAGING Much effort has been devoted to developing accurate neurodevelopmental prognostic assessments for extremely preterm neonates. This prospective cohort study compared different types and timing of neuroimaging with accurate predictions of poor neurodevelopmental outcome or death in neonates born at 24-27 weeks’ gestational age, and found that cranial ultrasound performed at 35-42 weeks postmenstrual age was more accurate than CUS performed at 4-14 days of life and comparable to MRI at 35-42 weeks PMA for predicting neurodevelopmental impairment. Although significant additional follow-up study is needed, CUS performed at near-term corrected gestational age may be a useful prognostic tool for neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm neonates
MUSIC Much thought has been given to providing developmentally supportive care for infants in the NICU; however, little is known about how music therapy might play a role in neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants. This literature review analyzed the data of ten methodologically rigorous publications studying the effectiveness of music in the NICU. The reviewers found that although both delivery of music and measures of outcome are disparate, music therapy may help to support neurodevelopment in preterm infants; however, additional study is necessary to fully validate and understand these findings
Magnesium sulfate is commonly used antenatally in mothers at high risk of preterm delivery. This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of antenatal magnesium sulfate administration to prevent cerebral palsy in neonates born at 24-31 weeks gestational age. The trial found that compared to placebo, magnesium sulfate treatment reduced the incidence of CP in preterm neonates at 2 years of age. While further study is necessary to streamline treatment recommendations and address effectiveness in preterm infants <24 weeks gestational age, magnesium sulfate is effective in reducing the incidence of cerebral palsy in preterm infants.