MRI

Preterm Neuroimaging and School-Age Cognitive Outcomes

PRETERM NEUROIMAGING The prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes among infants born at <28 weeks' gestational age is challenging and inexact. This prospective study assessed the usefulness of near-term neuroimaging in predicting the development of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes among these infants and found that at school age, there was a consistent association between near-term adverse cranial ultrasound findings (35-42 weeks' gestational age) and cognitive impairment compared to early CUS (4-14 days of age) or MRI. Thus, near-term cranial ultrasound may be a useful predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome in infants born at <28 weeks' gestational age.

Late Neuroimaging Predicts Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Preterm Infants

NEUROIMAGING Much effort has been devoted to developing accurate neurodevelopmental prognostic assessments for extremely preterm neonates. This prospective cohort study compared different types and timing of neuroimaging with accurate predictions of poor neurodevelopmental outcome or death in neonates born at 24-27 weeks’ gestational age, and found that cranial ultrasound performed at 35-42 weeks postmenstrual age was more accurate than CUS performed at 4-14 days of life and comparable to MRI at 35-42 weeks PMA for predicting neurodevelopmental impairment. Although significant additional follow-up study is needed, CUS performed at near-term corrected gestational age may be a useful prognostic tool for neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely preterm neonates

Late Neuroimaging Predicts Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 18-22 Months in Preterm Infants Born at 24-27 Completed Weeks’ Gestation

CRANIAL ULTRASOUND Neurodevelopmental impairment is a common morbidity of preterm birth. This prospective cohort study sought to determine the accuracy of cranial ultrasound (CUS) and/or MRI in predicting NDI at 18-22 months of age. Near-term CUS was the most effective predictor of NDI, however likelihood ratios show that no imaging study provides overwhelming predictive power. Thus, the limitations of these studies must be understood before they are widely used as a useful prognostic tool.