April 2018

BPD While the incidence of BPD continues to rise, little is known about the most effective, least injurious forms of ventilation in the most critically ill premature neonates. This prospective cohort study assessed the long-term pulmonary outcomes of ELBW infants born during three epochs (1991-92, 1997, and 2005), and found that at 8 years of age, ELBWs born in the 2005 epoch had worse pulmonary function outcomes than ELBWs born in the two prior epochs, 1991 and 1997. This study’s findings highlight important questions about non-invasive ventilation and drug administration in the NICU, and demonstrate the need for further prospective studies of today’s ELBW neonates.

Does late therapeutic hypothermia reduce risk of death or disability?

THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly initiated within 6 hours of birth to treat neonates displaying symptoms of HIE; however, whether therapeutic hypothermia is an effective treatment modality for neonates > 6 hours of age is unknown. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia lasting 96 hours in infants between 6 and 24 hours of age, and demonstrated a minor benefit to initiating late therapeutic hypothermia. Thus, therapeutic hypothermia can be considered in infants > 6 hours of age.