INFECTION The WHO recommends that neonates exhibiting symptoms of possible serious bacterial infection be referred to the hospital for daily injected penicillin and gentamicin. However, in many low- and middle-income countries, referral is impossible. This randomized controlled trial performed in DR Congo sought to determine the efficacy of daily oral amoxicillin administered by parents or community health workers in treating possible bacterial infections in neonates presenting with tachypnea. The trial revealed no significant difference in treatment failure between injected and oral antibiotics. Thus, when referral is impossible, oral amoxicillin is an option for treatment of symptomatic infants.