SEPSIS Late-onset sepsis is a common and severe neonatal morbidity. This randomized controlled trial studied the effectiveness of lactoferrin in preventing late-onset sepsis among infants <2500 grams. This study showed no significant difference in the incidence of late-onset sepsis in lactoferrin or placebo-supplemented groups. Thus, lactoferrin cannot currently be considered an effective therapy to prevent late-onset sepsis
PROBIOTICS Necrotizing enterocolitis causes significant morbidity among preterm infants; recent research suggests that probiotic treatment may help prevent NEC. This randomized controlled trial studied the effectiveness of probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic (probiotic + prebiotic) treatment in preventing NEC, and found that only probiotic and synbiotic treatment reduced the incidence of NEC among VLBWs, arguing against a beneficial effect of prebiotics alone. However, given the relatively low incidence of NEC, long-term follow up studies are essential to confirm the safety of this prophylactic treatment.