BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT Preterm infants are at risk for a broad spectrum of poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, including poor emotional regulation and stress response throughout childhood. This randomized controlled trial assessed whether a child-parent dyad-focused early intervention could improve primitive behaviors, reactivity, and stress response in ex-preterm toddlers. The trial found that home- or clinic-based intervention programs moderately improved primitive behavior and response to stress after interventions in the clinic or the home; however, further study is necessary to confirm these data.
PROBIOTICS Necrotizing enterocolitis causes significant morbidity among preterm infants; recent research suggests that probiotic treatment may help prevent NEC. This randomized controlled trial studied the effectiveness of probiotic, prebiotic, or synbiotic (probiotic + prebiotic) treatment in preventing NEC, and found that only probiotic and synbiotic treatment reduced the incidence of NEC among VLBWs, arguing against a beneficial effect of prebiotics alone. However, given the relatively low incidence of NEC, long-term follow up studies are essential to confirm the safety of this prophylactic treatment.