Is High-Flow Nasal Cannula Noninferior to Nasal CPAP for the Initial Management of Preterm Infants?

Effective ventilatory support is essential to the survival of extremely preterm infants in the NICU; however, much is still unknown regarding avoidance of treatment failure and progression to invasive mechanical ventilation. This randomized trial assessed the effectiveness of high flow nasal cannula versus nasal CPAP among infants >28 weeks’ gestational age with early RDS, and found an increase in treatment failure among infants receiving high flow nasal cannula.

Hypertension at late preterm gestation: deliver immediately or watch and wait?

HYPERTENSION Gestational hypertension causes significant maternal and neonatal morbidity, and few evidence-based guidelines exist for delivery in non-severe late preterm gestational hypertension. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the safety of immediate delivery or expectant management in mothers with gestational hypertension at 34-36 weeks of gestation. The investigation suggested that while there was no significant difference in maternal outcome depending on strategy, immediate delivery significantly increases the risk of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, pending collection of additional follow-up data, expectant management can be considered an appropriate strategy for non-severe late gestation hypertension.